机械加工介绍(中英文对照)

发布日期:[10-03-08 19:35:17] 浏览人次:[]

机械加工介绍(中英文对照)

1 Lathes

Lathes are machine tools designed primarily to do turning, facing and boring, Very little turning is done on other types of machine tools, and none can do it with equal facility. Because lathes also can do drilling and reaming, their versatility permits several operations to be done with a single setup of the work piece. Consequently, more lathes of various types are used in manufacturing than any other machine tool.

The essential components of a lathe are the bed, headstock assembly, tailstock assembly, and the leads crew and feed rod.

The bed is the backbone of a lathe. It usually is made of well normalized or aged gray or nodular cast iron and provides s heavy, rigid frame on which all the other basic components are mounted. Two sets of parallel, longitudinal ways, inner and outer, are contained on the bed, usually on the upper side. Some makers use an inverted V-shape for all four ways, whereas others utilize one inverted V and one flat way in one or both sets, They are precision-machined to assure accuracy of alignment. On most modern lathes the way are surface-hardened to resist wear and abrasion, but precaution should be taken in operating a lathe to assure that the ways are not damaged. Any inaccuracy in them usually means that the accuracy of the entire lathe is destroyed.

The headstock is mounted in a foxed position on the inner ways, usually at the left end of the bed. It provides a powered means of rotating the word at various speeds . Essentially, it consists of a hollow spindle, mounted in accurate bearings, and a set of transmission gears-similar to a truck transmission—through which the spindle can be rotated at a number of speeds. Most lathes provide from 8 to 18 speeds, usually in a geometric ratio, and on modern lathes all the speeds can be obtained merely by moving from two to four levers. An increasing trend is to provide a continuously variable speed range through electrical or mechanical drives.

Because the accuracy of a lathe is greatly dependent on the spindle, it is of heavy construction and mounted in heavy bearings, usually preloaded tapered roller or ball types. The spindle has a hole extending through its length, through which long bar stock can be fed. The size of maximum size of bar stock that can be machined when the material must be fed through spindle.

The tailsticd assembly consists, essentially, of three parts. A lower casting fits on the inner ways of the bed and can slide longitudinally thereon, with a means for clamping the entire assembly in any desired location, An upper casting fits on the lower one and can be moved transversely upon it, on some type of keyed ways, to permit aligning the assembly is the tailstock quill. This is a hollow steel cylinder, usually about 51 to 76mm(2to 3 inches) in diameter, that can be moved several inches longitudinally in and out of the upper casting by means of a hand wheel and screw.

The size of a lathe is designated by two di

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本文关键字:车床  数字控制  车削加工
本文所属专题:英文文献翻译 机床 数控技术 
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