Tool material 工具材料

发布日期:[09-10-22 20:55:19] 浏览人次:[]

The specific material selected for a particular tool is normally determined by the mechanical properties necessary for proper operation of the tool. These materials should be selected after a careful study and evaluation of the function and requirement of the proposed tool.


The principle materials used for tools can be divided into three major categories: ferrous material, nonferrous material, and nonmetallic material. Ferrous tool materials have iron as a base metal and include tool steel, alloy steel, carbon steel, and cast iron. Nonferrous materials have a base metal other than iron and include aluminum, magnesium, zinc, lead, bismuth, copper, and a variety of alloys. Nonmetallic materials are those materials such as woods, plastics, rubbers, epoxy resins, ceramics and diamonds that do not have a metallic base. To properly select a tool material, there are several physical and mechanical properties you should understand to determine how the material you select will affect the function and operation of the tool.


Physical and mechanical properties are those characteristics of a material which controls how the material will react under certain conditions. Physical properties are those properties which are natural in the material and cannot be permanently altered without changing the material itself. These properties include: weight, color, thermal and electrical conductivity, rate of thermal expansion, and melting point. The mechanical properties of a material are those properties which can be permanently altered by thermal or mechanical treatment. These properties include: strength, hardness, wear resistance, toughness, brittleness, plasticity, ductility, malleability, and modulus of elasticity.


Form a use standpoint, tool steels are utilized in working and shaping basic material such as metals, plastics, and wood into desired forms. Form a composition standpoint, tool steel is carbon alloy steels which are capable of being hardened and tempered. Some desirable properties of tool steel are high wear resistance and hardness, good heat resistance, and sufficient strength to work the materials. In some case, dim

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本文关键字:Tool material  工具材料

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